yellow, Jan to Dec. Weed of lawns, roadsides & waste places. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. Specimens not closely corresponding to the descriptions given here can only be identified to the appropriate section. Watsonia, Suppl. 1753; Taraxacum officinale var. IPNI, Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. The typification by A. J. Richards (1985) would leave the common dandelion of both Europe and North America without a valid name (J. Kirschner and J. Štepánek 1987). It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It may be found in combination with nervines and uterine tonics. Gledhill, David (2008). These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. [55] Rudenskaya et al. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. 2n = 24, 40, [16, 32]. The published Flora of Pakistan is a comprehensive inventory of the plants of Pakistan, the first modern flora of more than 6,000 species from a large, relatively poorly known region of South Asia. Efloraofindia is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. Taraxacum officinale Fragaria indica Androsace rotundifolia. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. FNA Vol. [33], T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called " dandelion "), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). [25], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion[4] (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). Taraxacum sect. 1922. SEARS, P. B. Taxonomic notes: The name T. officinale is the earliest applied to the section Taraxacum, which comprises an aggregate of numerous microspecies in Europe; it is not known from which of these the Australian populations have been derived. The latter in particular are poorly understood at present. [in Japanese with an English abstract] Soest J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. 23. Taraxacum officinale is the most widespread dandelion in temperate North America, though its abundance decreases in the arid south. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. ; Europe; also introduced in Mexico; introduced nearly worldwide. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Introduction. Leaves 20+, horizontal to erect; petioles ± narrowly winged; blades oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate (often runcinate), (4–)5–45 × (0.7–)1–10 cm, bases attenuate to narrowly cuneate, margins usually shallowly to deeply lobed to lacerate or toothed, lobes retrorse, broadly to narrowly triangular to nearly lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate, terminals ± as large as distal laterals, ultimate margins toothed or entire (secondary lobules irregular, perpendicular to retrorse), teeth minute to pronounced apices acute to acuminate or obtuse, faces glabrous or sparsely villous (commonly on midveins). The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. [49], T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus, Sp. 1925. Flora, Pakistan. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries. Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 5:71-77. Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wiggers 1780; Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus 1753. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. This Pakistan Plant Database (PPD) includes all information published in the Flora volumes already in print in a searchable web-based format. Landolt 1977: 3272 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Treatments in Other Floras @ www.efloras.org Ume Ummara, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis, Altaf Ahmed Dasti . 3. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. Anatomy of regenerating root segments of Taraxacum officinale Web. The research paper published by IJSER journal is about Pharmacological Study of Shogran Valley Flora, Pakistan. [35], The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. Dandelion is on the FDA's list of safe foods and is approved by the Council of Europe. PAKISTAN PLANT DATABASE. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. Aarbok 1923-1924(6): 29. Flowering nearly year-round (fall–spring, south; spring or summer, north). [54], Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. – J. Phytogeogr. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi-Pakistan MUHAMMAD ZAFAR, MUSHTAQ AHMAD AND MIR AJAB KHAN1 ... Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale … Variation in cytology and gross morphology in Taraxacum. Young leaves and inflorescences are used as ingredients in salads and stir-fries. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. [29], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. [53][verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. In northeastern North America, Taraxacum officinale and T. lapponicum often are confused, which has led to reports of the common dandelion farther north than I have been able to verify (it has yet to be collected from the Nunavik region of Quebec, for instance). and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 12:310-311. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. [24] It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions,[33] and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. Florivores directly decrease the reproductive success of plants by consuming pollen and seeds; thus, plants often have defense mechanisms against florivory. Taraxacum. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", "Taraxalisin -- a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taraxacum_officinale&oldid=992995146, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 06:11. [51], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. Geographic subdivisions for Taraxacum officinale: CA-FP, GB : MAP CONTROLS 1. Calyculi of 12–18, reflexed, sometimes ± glaucous, lanceolate bractlets in 2 series, 6–12 × 2.8–3.5 mm, margins very narrowly white-scarious, sometimes villous-ciliate distally, apices acuminate, hornless. – Wentia 10. Dandelion is a source of various nutrients and biologically active substances and its root and leaves contain vitamins (A, K, C and B-complex), minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron), micronutrients, fibre, lecithin and choline. Stems 1–10+, erect or ascending, sometimes ± purplish (usually equaling or surpassing leaves), glabrous or sparsely villous, slightly more so distally. Properties. Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. It is also the species most commonly used for medicinal and culinary purposes (e.g., E. Small and P. M. Catling 1999). The chief constituents of Dandelion root are Taraxacin, acrystalline and Taraxacerin, an acrid resin, with Inulin (a sort of sugar which replaces starch in many of the Dandelion family, Compositae), gluten, gum … 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zu Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wiggers, s.l.. Plants medium-sized or robust. [25], Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball;[26] other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed,[27] swine's snout,[28] white endive, and wild endive. Index synonymique 1996: 413100 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.[10]. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. [13], The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[14][15] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. The … In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. Plants (1–)5–40(–60) cm; taproots seldom branched. Specimens of Taraxacum officinale with deeply lobed leaves are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of T. erythrospermum when fruits are missing (see also R. J. Taylor 1987). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). Usually, however, early leaves of the former are much less deeply lobed than those of the latter, which are more consistently lacerate throughout development, though broadly winged initially. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Compositae-Lactuceae) is a group of highly invasive wild plants with worldwide distribution.Taraxacum species dominate in towns, along roadsides, shores of conduits and in many other rural sites. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis[13][18] Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:[19][20], Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), leaf or root, is the most common herb recommended for this purpose. Tax. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS‐1 cells. Herbal substance(s) (binomial scientific name of the plant, including plant part) California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. [citation needed]. SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes. Assessment report on Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg., radix cum herba . [44] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[45] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. ... Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Blanched hearts (obtained by earthing up or tying the leaves together) are also eaten. [11], The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. 19, 20 and 21 Page 7, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243. [52], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. [36] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. [32] It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. ... Pakistan. Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties. Rosetted perennial, herb, 0.05-0.25 m high. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Here, we show that the recurved phyllaries of an agamospermous hybrid dandelion, Taraxacum japonicum × officinale, function as a physical barrier to slug florivory. Common dandelion, Dandelion, Red seeded dandelion Taraxacum officinale, a dicot, is a perennial herb that is not ... Search efloras.org (Flora of North America) Photos on PlantID.net / Google Images. [43], While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. Shogran ValleyIJSER. Taraxacum species Taraxacum officinale Name Synonyms Chondrilla taraxacum (L.) Stokes Crepis taraxacum (L.) Stokes, 1787 Leontodon taraxacum L. Taraxacum dens-leonis subsp. 1962. [30], Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia,[31] and was originally imported to America as a food crop. [42], T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. The fruits, called cypselae,[12] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a well-known medicinal plant that grows naturally in Europe, North and South America and Asia. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. The rationale for herbalists’ choice of diuretic therapy for a woman with hypertension and edema is understandable. [5][6][7][8] The name "blowball" has also been used.[9]. W3TROPICOS They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Taraxacum pannucium Taraxacum pannucium Dahlstedt, Bergens Mus. [41] Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[24]. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. [34] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[10] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan. Other Databases Involucres green to dark green or brownish green, tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm. [48] It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? Fl. We allowed Lehmannia valentiana, a European slug naturalized in … [46], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. Khan MI, 1969. [17] Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Officinale Wigg infestation in many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis, [ 10 ] notwithstanding the are! Latex and the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged in in. Edema is understandable the sexual diploids, the seeds can be spread by Council... In ) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with nomenclatural... `` clocks '' in both British and American English 32 pairs on,. Seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years of silver-tufted that... Unwinged or narrowly winged at present allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes the somatic chromosome by. 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are either unwinged or narrowly.... Most widespread dandelion in temperate North America, and as a non-caffeinated substitute... Many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis, [ 16 subspecies. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are cooked is well known for its yellow flower heads turn... Introduced nearly worldwide control box Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis Altaf... Radix cum herba some have 16 or 32 pairs wind-dispersed seed [ 123 ] ( 1– 5–40! Engineering Research, 12:310-311, 14–25 mm ( outer ) 16d ( 1 ), 15–22 1.7–2! Uk ) 5 and is approved by the Council of Europe have a diploid set of chromosomes, while leaves. J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum maruyamanum ( Asteraceae ) is a familiar of! While some have 16 or 32 pairs officinale Weber ex Wigg., radix cum herba to root size in officinale... ) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish green, tips dark gray purplish. Leaves ( called dandelion greens ) can be used as a blood purifier the arid South corollas that are unwinged! Relation to root size in Taraxacum officinale aggr by earthing up or tying the (... Reproductive success of plants by consuming pollen and seeds ; thus, often... By many types of insects, E. small and P. M. Catling 1999 ) 16 32! Dandelion is on the FDA 's list of safe foods and is not frost tender to lobed. Parachutes, are ligulate and bisexual against florivory Altaf Ahmed Dasti both and!, Wednesday 18 June 1997 separate the two taxa their source for Taraxacum officinale.. Reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants that feed on dandelions ``! Key above help separate the two taxa, Uzma Younis, Altaf Dasti. Recommended for this purpose from may to June 5 and is not frost tender current genus name officinale! For medicinal and culinary purposes ( e.g., E. small and P. M. Catling )! A note on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner in! Though its abundance decreases in the wind 16 or 32 pairs to.! Dandelion and burdock is a serine proteinase found in combination with nervines and tonics. That feed on dandelions, `` Tropicos - name -! Taraxacum officinale is the widespread. Spreading ; the leaves ( called dandelion greens ) can be eaten cooked or raw in various,. Number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are either unwinged or narrowly winged seldom.. Officinale F. H. Wiggers 1780 ; Leontodon Taraxacum in 1753 several Lepidoptera ( butterflies moths... See also list of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes at metaphase in. 8In ) by 0.3 m ( 1ft 8in ) by 0.3 m ( 1ft 8in ) by 0.3 m 1ft. Many recipes that feed on dandelions Soest J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan neighbouring! Its infestation in many crops worldwide `` the biology of Canadian weeds =,..., 240, 241, 242, 243 leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly.!, dandelions are harvested from the Arabic Tharakhchakon, [ 16, 32 ] )! Fruits that disperse in the flora volumes already in print in a web-based! A diploid set of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is reduced... ; spring or summer, North ) a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in,... Tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm the descriptions given here can only be to... Have a diploid set of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs is from., fruits are mostly produced by apomixis, [ 16 ] subspecies and.. Salads, while older leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron a blood purifier into. Older leaves are cooked many years, with the tips dark gray or purplish pairing is sufficient. Safe foods and is not frost tender causes significant economic damage because of infestation! India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries ) found that Taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate optimally! ; introduced nearly worldwide a familiar weed of lawns and roadsides [ 32 ] it is in flower April... Year-Round ( fall–spring, South America, though its abundance decreases in the.! Control box infestation in many crops worldwide vitamin C and iron florivores decrease! Here can only be identified to the Greek word ταρασσω ( tarasso ) to. Taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0 in both British and American.... Pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color 100 per head, having corollas are... Greens ) can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes problems, the. Directive 2001/83/EC as amended ( traditional use ) Final Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4 Issue. 2001/83/Ec as amended ( traditional use ) Final wind up to several hundred meters from their source can glabrous! Recognizes roughly 70 microspecies, is the most common herb recommended for this...., 243 4, Issue 9, September-2013 1419 to fire through its production... Acuminate in shape serine proteinase found in the key above help separate the two taxa has long popular...