A deadening explosion had cleaved through the underground coalmine and unfortunately trapped an unidentified number of shift miners inside the mine. Teleological Theories: The term ‘teleological’ is … Massey Company had not only violated the ethical business standards and the federal government legal stipulations of the MSHA, but the constant problems described entail some significant breach of justice in organizations. The principles of ethics of care appreciate that human beings, as an interdependent beings possessing the values of caring relationships, develop ethical behaviors from family backgrounds and moral values of emotions such as empathy and benevolence are essential. As Shoemaker (1999) postulates, growth in the legal frameworks governing societies, communities, and even nations have resulted in considerable influences on how corporate business view legal issues. 2. As such, they are bound by codes ofconduct promulgated by professional societies. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 2(1), 1-4. Management within organizations has the responsibility of acting ethically upright in defense of the majority employees and all people should undertake their practice with moral consciousness of understanding that their actions are morally right (Gardiner, 2003). The study of ethics focuses on human relationships and what is considered morally correct in human behaviors. Philosophers argue that ethical business practices may even not require theories of justice, utility, or even rights, but ethical practices may only require ethical leadership where passion is intrinsic (Ciulla, 2004). In the fire tragedy of January 2006, Massey Company and its Upper Big Branch failed to fix the conveyor belt that caused fire, there were accumulations of combustible materials, and there was the absence of carbon monoxide monitors. Copyright © 2020 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. After Bentham, Stewart, and Moore, successive economist-driven philosophers concluded that the ultimate good of utilitarianism should entail satisfaction of preferences and people should choose their own intrinsic value. Kit Barton, Principal Lecturer in Leadership, Management & Ethics, Regent’s University London. Business Ethics Wayne Norman “Business ethics” is a concise, but in many ways misleading, label for an interdis- ... from the rights of workers and the ethics of lobbying, to the justifications and critiques of capitalist ... theory of the right or the theory of the good has priority; and virtue ethicists reject Ethics determines the difference between right and wrong. Chapter 2 "Theories of Duties and Rights: Traditional Tools for Making Decisions in Business When the Means Justify the Ends" examines some theories guiding ethical decisions in business. The ways we conduct business are somehow expected to be different than our normal interactions. Dr. Aurora Voiculescu, Reader in Business Ethics, University of Westminster. Under the professional ethics of business practice, all employers have the responsibility to take care of all their employees while in their course of duty. Teleological theories, and . Your privacy is extremely important to us. Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories. Although the risk was unforeseen, there was even no enough workplace material including oxygen tanks that are essential workplace safety tools. Rights ethics is an answer to the meta-ethical question of what normative ethics is concerned with (Meta-ethics also includes a group of questions about how ethics comes to be known, true, etc. Doing what is right is obeying your duties and the rule that guide a business. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine. Explosive gas methane and carbon monoxide elongated the rescue time. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. Your email address will not be published. Since the leadership of Don Blankenship, the company persistently aroused considerable ethical dilemmas and fined millions of money regularly for violation of federal safety standards and environmental disasters that emerged from unethical business practices. Though the view that business has human rights responsibilities has attracted a great deal of positive attention, this view continues to face many reservations and unresolved questions. Powers in rights are “the ability within asset of rules to alter then normative situation of one self or another” (Arnold et al., 2010, p.572). Although less understood and more often misinterpreted by researchers while determining its relationship with the business practice following its complication in implementing it to business real, it carries significant value. February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. Give two reasons why political rights are important to business ethics. Conventionally, human beings wish to experience good moments of pleasure and contentment, but they are normally contemptuous to suffering and any form of torment. Rights-based ethics is a concept that because one is a human being that person is entitled to certain rights. Organizations and their leadership should thus uphold the required business ethical principles that consider human rights as part of their core ideology of the business foundations. Massey and its Upper Big Branch consistently remained insensitive to environmental precautions and mismanaged the coal slurry that contained toxic impurities. The Long Road to Business and Human Rights Reform: Law, Policy and Social Justice in the Cotton Fields of Uzbekistan; Dr. The morning shift miners were in the process of exchanging shifts with the afternoon shift miners at around 3.00 pm on the Monday of April 2010. 3. Contemporary theorists, who consider caring theory as the most appropriate approach in business ethics, have noticed that since justice, rights, and utility all come from laws and regulations, which should be impartial or impersonal, they undermine the self-dependency of ethical behavior, which should be solely innate (Noda, 2011). However, it is important to consider the logical reasoning that resulted in the formation of the care theory that most probably outdoes all other business ethics theories. Business owners and managers can use an ethics theory they deem most appropriate for use in their operations. Lack of these essential safety precautions underscores a violation of safety requirements and the 2011 was a similar breach to safety principles as they undermined the employee’s justice. This work is the outcome of a pilot project on business and human rights in countries where no National Action Plans exist for implementing the UN Guiding Principles. IvyPanda, 6 Feb. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. However, most critics on the utilitarian moral theory of the Bentham version of utilitarianism rest upon the notion that it is difficult to determine satisfaction of choice. Rights ethics holds that normative ethics is concerned with rights. Our moral belief about life changes over time. The ethics of care stipulate that individuals should be capable of, if necessary, meeting the demands of others and themselves in a mutual rapport. Ciulla, J. Social rights are widely recognized in developed nations nowadays. With regard to the case of Massey and its Upper Big Branch, there might not be considerable connection that directly explains this relationship. Dr Outhwaite highlighted the leverage that states have, to influence their suppliers (and their human rights agenda), given their significant purchasing power; and the long-established precedent that exists for the use of government procurement as a tool to promote social policies. Non-suffering, fair treatment, and virtuous leadership are all part of ethical leadership. Jose Pavon AC1403380 Business Ethics C06.V.9.1 Assignment 4 C061 3/3/15 A right is encouraged by principles of justice and constitutes the legal and institutional order regulating human behavior in society. Ethical leadership should consider the fundamental rights, freedom, and protection of employees as an integral issue in the company and take it as a moral responsibility not due to coercion. "Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories." Arnold, D., Audi, R., & Zwolinski, M. (2010). In the world of business, the study of moral rights and obligations as they apply to companies … Aristotle’s virtue ethics theory is important in addressing many ethical problems in business and organization management because virtue and moral character “provides the wisdom necessary for applying rules in particular instances” (Hinman, 2006). 1. The theory of care postulates that individuals should relate within the ethics of care where moral significant and individual ethical behavior are fundamental elements of building dependencies and relationships in human life (Noda, 2011). Recue teams appeared at around 6.00 pm, after some miners managed to come on top alive. Under the rights philosophy, four main rights include privileges, claims, powers, and immunities bestowed on individuals (Arnold et al., 2010). 2. (2010) posit, “Justice is all about the positive obligation to prevent and rectify injustice as well as the negative duty not to commit injustice” (p. 567). The foremost portion of business ethics understands the theory of rights as one of the core principles in the five-item ethical positions that deem essential in the understanding of moral business practices (Gardiner, 2003). Although all the workers underwent similar situations as from the development of the story, exposing workers of organizations to hazardous working situations entails a considerable breach to denied justice. The Massey Energy Company and its Upper Big branch lacked considerable care of its miners at it breached rules and regulations and even violated workplace safety rules. Morals in individuals play a significant role and individuals should independently use their ethical behaviors in attaining their purpose without harming others (Shoemaker, 1999). Utilitarianism empathizes that proper cause of action is the one responsible for maximizing utility or efficiency and philosophers like GE Moore insisted that no one could formulate a true conception of good. For a natural rights theorist, morally permissible actions are ones that respect rights, and morally impermissible actions are ones that violate rights. In this sense, human beings have been described as having rights to property, "to life, liberty, and the pursuit happiness" ( United States Declaration of Independence, 1776), as "free and equal in rights" ( Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789), and as having rights "to share in scientific advancement and … John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. Immunity is the right over individual normative situation. Theory of Ethics It's difficult to say exactly what ethics is, but we can say that it involves a standard of what is right and wrong based on what people ought to do. Ethical leadership is part of ethical business practices and it entails instilled democracy. On this day, nine of the shift miners had just managed to come out of the cars and while walking towards the exit end of the mine, they heard a loud blast of air blow past them. Business ethics involve following business principles that entail morality in leadership as well as in several other aspects of businesses. Management teams should be virtuous so that their actions and regulations that they develop do not contradict the real meaning of ethical leadership. Justice as an ethical approach in the leadership and business practices is where individuals receive equal treatment in the society regardless of their creed, racial background, professional rank, or even their social classes. Although justice theory and its principles may focus entirely on the relationship between workers and the way an organization ensures equity amongst them, looking at the direct relationship between the miners and the Massey Company is integral. They examine the interplay between national and international standards, stock exchanges and sector specific guides – and their role in top 50 companies reporting on social and environmental responsibilities and human rights, in 2017. You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. It was the duty of care for the employer of Massey to protect and care for the miners drilling oil. In organizations, this ethical approach holds that justice may be in the form of distributive justice, retributive justice, or even compensatory justice all in which social justice and equal dignity are core subjects. Required fields are marked *. The notion of utilitarianism became a moral philosophy in the 17th century and originated from the efforts of Western politicians to develop an ethical framework that would promote political liberalism (Robertson & Walter, 2007). Although less connected to the events that happened in the Upper Big Branch, there was a direct involvement of the company’s management, which the federal government considered negligent over the issues pertaining to workplace safety. Management in the Massey Energy Company had intentionally violated mining principles including safety violations as stipulated by the MSHA, thus putting employees susceptible to harm. Rights are generally defined as justified claims for the protection of general interests. Stuart Mill further comprehended the utilitarian idea by explaining that cultural, intellectual, and even spiritual pleasures are more valuable than the physical pleasures. Introduction. Please click here to access the programme, briefing with Clifford Chance earlier this year, Business Ethics and Human Rights, from Theory to Practice, A feast of a debate on business and human rights. Posted by AnaMaria | Sep 15, 2019 | Events | 0. Arnold et al. The issue of government procurement can also be seen as an international trade concern. Behaving ethically is more than obeying the law -- it is expecting your rights to be upheld and upholding the rights of others through ethical duties. This position goes down to ethical business practices where in the context of the rights ethical approach, employees should receive maximum respect, dignity, and protection from any form of physical, emotional, or psychological harm coming from their jobs. Any action against employees’ expectations and desires conducted by organizations is injustice. Gardiner, P. (2003). "Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories." The need to live a life of justice has been among the contemporary matters especially in organizations where moral leadership is essential. Privileges involve individuals’ autonomy and diplomacy towards actions against themselves. Perhaps among the most practicable theories that fit perfectly in the case of death tragedy at Massey Energy Company is the care theory that presents the realm intentions of ethical business practices. which is not directly addressed by rights ethics). The right to be informed of what law has been broken if … Business Ethics and Human Rights This briefing updates the scope of the challenge to business with more recent developments. The workshop ended with a presentation by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal and Zhiwei Hu on their year-long project about CSR guidance and company reporting in China. During the post-enlightenment period in the West, utilitarian ethics as normative ethics were to form the blueprint for the long desired social justice in the West and philosophers consider it as the background of the modern moral philosophy. This was followed by a good look at the EU Directive on whistleblower protection – based on in-depth document analysis – and how it relates to freedom, security and autonomy. Justice and fair practice include a relationship between employees and employers, and employees and employees as well, something that is undisputable in the justice theory. A few different business ethics theories exist, such as the utilitarian, rights, justice, common good and virtue … Employees should enjoy favorable working conditions and companies should never subject employees to any form of humiliation at the expense of corporate gain (Arnold et al., 2010). Human approach towards anticipation for maximizing of pleasure and elimination of suffering and pain brings about the fundamentals established in the realm of moral philosophies that date back to a distant past (Robertson & Walter, 2007). Business ethics is a broad field because there are so many different topics that fall under its umbrella. Attention to rights ensures that the freedom and well-being of each individual will be protected when others threaten that freedom or well-being. For instance, an employee should be free from exploitation or corporeal punishment imposed on his/her payments. The principles of justice ethical approach in business organizations have evolved since the Aristotle era and they assume that individuals, including workers, should receive equal treatment unless they partially differ in significantly uncontrollable manner that seem imperative to the underway situation (Arnold et al., 2010). Cases of ethical lapses are still on the rise, and thus developing an understanding of the issues in the context of decent business practices is becoming essential. The rights ethical approach assumes that it is the moral and professional responsibility of the management and its company to consider the safety of workers and provide them with appropriate protection against any form of physical or psychological harm. Violating the business principles that protect employees’ welfare was a lack of care. This essay on Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories was written and submitted by your fellow student. This was followed by a talk by Doug Specht, on the link between human rights mapping (understood in a wide sense) and surveillance. Despite advice, there were cracks and faults running through the mine walls that predisposed workers to workplace risks. Alternative meta-ethical theories are that ethics is concerned with one of the following: Duties ; Value ; … ⏰ Let's see if we can help you! Of course, every dilemma can be dissected using more than one approach, and thus, the end result or decision may […] Ethical Egoism: The ethical egoism is a teleological theory that posits, an action is good if it produces or is likely to produce results that maximize the person’s self-interest as defined by him, even at the expense of others. Dr Aurora Voiculescu took the series of practical examples further, focusing on an on-going project with cotton fields supply chains in Uzbekistan – the 7th cotton producer in the world. Claims involve the right of individuals to enjoy protection against any form of harm or paternalism. Learn how your comment data is processed. Although no ethical framework is perfect or fits a particular era completely, Rawls’s justice theory has distinct advantages when applied to business in the twenty-first century. The right to express ideas or opinions with freedom as an individual. It is the only moral … About Rights Theory. Last time, we talked about the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision-making. Rights, then, play a central role in ethics. IvyPanda. Doug Specht – a chartered cartographer – examined the history of the cartographic ‘gaze’ and how this became embedded in new technologies; he then explored the limitations this led to, and offered ways of moving forward, through what he called sousveillance projects – aimed to break away from ‘the cartographic gaze’ to create new representations of the world that avoid the process of ‘re-othering’ and further subjugation. Virtue ethics assume that morally virtuous leaders tend to reason appropriately and their actions remain governed by their critical reasoning to consequentiality of the outcomes. The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example. February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. The rescue teams did little to contain the situation as it forced them to enter the mine in turns. In the wide sense of moral soundness, good leadership associates with good ethics where integrity, transparency, and moral obligations related to competence, justice, duty, and the great goodness (Ciulla, 2004). Reasoning according to Aristotle is the guide towards practicing moral virtues and ethical behavior in individuals various life occupations (Robertson & Walter, 2007). IvyPanda. Becoming more and more workable in terms of economist-driven formulations, further works on utilitarian as a moral philosophy led to the formation of two forms of intuitive ideas of maximizing good into ‘Act’ and ‘Rule’ utilitarianism. Ethics, as the care theory assumes, require passionate innate feelings towards others and as morality is self-driven, the theory is more practical to both the situation of the Massey Company and its businesses as well as other companies. Many firms also havedetailed codes of conduct, developed and enforced by teams of ethicsand compliance personnel. The protection of workers as per the formal labor regulations in the US and the rights ethical principles are solely the responsibility of the employer whilst employees are in the course of duty (Noda, 2011). Basing its principles on normative ethical standards, the ethical decision making process seems quite straightforward. Business ethics theories include the moral principles or codes a company implements to ensure that all individuals working in the company act with acceptable behavior. Virtuous leadership is honesty and ethically right as leaders possessing these traits have the ability to protect the welfare of employees and the interests of the company in a balanced manner. Virtue ethics seem difficult to apply or implement in the business as they concentrated on intrinsic human values. The basis of the law is social relations which determine its content and character. (2019) 'Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories'. It gives an overview of some practical tools and frameworks that organisations can use to minimise the risk of human rights abuses in all their operations, including some recent examples of good practice. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Catie Shavin offered a detailed account of what works in business practice, from her 10 year experience working with practitioners globally and in key regions. Morally virtuous leaders are competent as they act or undertake their jobs in the right way. Reports later concluded that during the massive explosion, approximately 61 miners of the Massey Energy Company working underground had perished inside the mine. The death incidence occurred at the Upper branch of the coalmine around Mont coal in the West Virginia district. Government reports indicated that Massey Energy Company had received several warnings, almost 50 times in the prior month alone, over violation of employee workplace safety. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large population endorses them. © Copyright ‘2020’ by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal - Website designed by Luca Morelli. They have the ability and resources to do so work published on.. 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