In 208 BC Scipio defeated Hasdrubal, although Hasdrubal was able to withdraw most of his troops into Gaul and then northern Italy in spring 207 BC. [65], In 219 BC a Carthaginian army under Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked Saguntum[66][67] and in spring 218 BC Rome declared war on Carthage. [81], The Carthaginians captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and their army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. Capua had defected to Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. [74], Meanwhile, Hannibal assembled a Carthaginian army in New Carthage (modern Cartagena) and led it northwards along the Iberian coast in May or June. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. 10,000 talents was approximately 269,000 kg (265 long tons) of silver. [138] They sailed from Croton[139] and landed at Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans. [141], The Roman fleet continued on from Massala in the autumn of 218 BC, landing the army it was transporting in north-east Iberia, where it won support among the local tribes. [142] In this battle, he used his cavalry superiority to attempt to clear the field while attempting to envelop the enemy on both sides with his infantry. Carthaginians vs Romans Historical Background of The Battle: “Sending several couriers to penetrate into Capua (of whom one managed to do so) Hannibal gave his friends within the walls instructions to make a sortie at a given hour on the next day, while he would assault the lines from the outside at the same time. Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. S67, p. 49. Hostages were taken. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. [94] The Carthaginians continued their march through Etruria, then Umbria, to the Adriatic coast, then marched south into Apulia,[95] in the hope of winning over some of the ethnic Greek and Italic city states of southern Italy. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. [106] All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents was to be paid over 50 years. [110], The greatest gain was the second largest city of Italy, Capua, when Hannibal's army marched into Campania in 216 BC. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. Hannibal temporarily managed to raise the siege of Capua. Scipio was in Massalia when he heard the news of Hannibal’s movement. 215-207 Capua was celebrated for its wealth and luxury, and the enervating effect which these produced upon the army of Hannibal became a favorite theme of rhetorical exaggeration in later ages. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. [68] There were three main military theatres in the war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. Second Punic War - Capua falls; Second Punic War - Iberia, Greece, and politics in Rome; Religion in Ancient Rome; Course Description. September- Hannibal defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of Rhone Crossing. Look at other dictionaries: List of battles of the Second Punic War — This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 7] was to be paid over 50 years. [23] The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians to pay an even greater indemnity than the payment exacted immediately following the war. He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians, in an attempt to ensure the loyalty of their tribes;[147][149] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. He won several battles but still refrained from attacking the city of Rome, even after annihilating a huge Roman army at Cannae in 216. [note 5][32][37], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. Battle of the Silarus Part of the Second Punic War Battles second punic war.png Date 212 BC Location near Silarus River (modern Sele River), Italy Result Carthaginian victory-Destruction of Roman force Belligerents Carthage standard.svg Carthage Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic Commanders and leaders Hannibal Marcus Centenius Penula † Strength 25,000-30,000 16,000 Casualties and losses moderate … The account of the Roman historian Livy, who relied heavily on Polybius, is much used by modern historians where Polybius's account is not extant. At the Battle of Ilipa in 206 Scipio permanently ended the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[126][127] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. [29][30] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[31][32] – and unarmoured close order cavalry[33] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. [166] In 149 BC, fifty years after the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage sent an army, under Hasdrubal, against Masinissa, the treaty notwithstanding. It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6. [88] Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC [1] and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. [87] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. That year, Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia, through Gaul and over the Alps to Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). [161] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. [101] Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack their cavalry on the other wing. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. ; August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. Second Punic War - Target: Capua by Ernie Jones ← Video Lecture 46 of 50 → Video Lecture 46 of 50 → Second Punic War: Second Period, From The Revolt Of Capua To The Battle Of The Metaurus - b.C. [83], When news of the defeat reached Rome it initially caused panic. [73] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. Punic War, Second (218–201 ),also called Second Carthaginian War, second in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian ( Punic ) Empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's inconclusive Battle of Crotona in 204 BC in the far south of the peninsula. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. [101] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6.Capua had defected to Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. The combined Roman force attacked Hasdrubal at the Battle of the Metaurus and destroyed his army, killing Hasdrubal. It seemed as though the superiority of the Romans at sea would enable them to choose the field of battle. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. The First Punic War (264-241 BCE) Celtic and Illyrian Wars (241-219 BCE) The Second Punic War: Hannibal (218-211 BCE) The Second Punic War: Scipio (210-201 BCE) Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire (201-188 BCE) Liguria, Spain and the great Greek quagmire (187-172 BCE) Masters of the Mediterranean (171-151 BCE) The Third Punic War (150-146 BCE) Before their preparations were complete, Hannibal…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which would help to compensate for the loss of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Under him, the tradition of armies developing stronger loyalties to their commanders than to the republic started, a tradition that would lead to civil war. Many were from North Africa which provided several types of fighter, including: close order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry[note 4] (also known as "heavy cavalry") carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. [85] The consuls-elect recruited further legions, both Roman and from Rome's Latin allies; reinforced Sardinia and Sicily against the possibility of Carthaginian raids or invasion; placed garrisons at Tarentum and other places for similar reasons; built a fleet of 60 quinqueremes; and established supply depots at Ariminum and Arretium in preparation for marching north later in the year. Hasdrubal’s force at the Metaurus probably numbered some 30,000 men, that of the Romans not less than 40,000 (Kromayer-Veith, Antike Schlachtfelder, üi. [78] The Roman commanders captured Saguntum in 212 BC and in 211 BC hired 20,000 Celtiberian mercenaries to reinforce their army. Hannibal, who almost overpowered Rome, was considered Rome’s greatest enemy. [147] The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order; most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. [103], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. An army was usually formed by combining a Roman legion with a similarly sized and equipped legion provided by their Latin allies; these legions usually had a larger attached complement of cavalry than Roman ones. Hannibal could win allies, but defending them against the Romans was a new and difficult problem, as the Romans could still field multiple armies, which in total greatly outnumbered his own forces. Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal defeated the Romans again at the Battle of Cannae, where he annihilated the largest army the Romans had ever assembled. [136], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. [111] When the port city of Locri defected to Carthage in the summer of 215 BC it was immediately used to reinforce the Carthaginian forces in Italy with soldiers, supplies and war elephants. [134] This battle enabled another Roman army to approach Tarentum and capture it by treachery in the second Battle of Tarentum. Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. [130] Later that same year, Hannibal defeated another Roman army at the Battle of Herdonia, with 16,000 men lost from a force of 18,000. In 219 BC Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked the pro-Roman city of Saguntum, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in spring 218 BC. Second Punic War events Hannibal had made Capua his winter quarter in 215 BC and had conducted his campaigns against Nola and Casilinum from there. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession.