... Artichokes are an excellent addition to your garden because you can use them in a variety of recipes or pair them with a spinach harvest and make a delicious dip. Chaya also highly disease and pest­ resistant. How to cook beet leaf spinach. Seven Tips to Begin an “Excuse Free” New Year. Tree spinach is considered as a good source of food in the Pacific region. Tree Spinach Plants. New plants are grown from seed at the beginning of the growing season. Low-maintenance. Fortunately, ours are spineless, tasty and simple to collect! The specific epithet, aconitifolius, means " Aconitum -like leaves". Like cassava, leaves are toxic raw because they contains cyanogenic glucosides. Is Longevity Spinach a Perennial or Annual? Globe artichokes are a pretty perennial that taste delicious. For those in the warmer US growing regions (zones 9 and above), the gynura plant will proliferate as a perennial through the warm season and hold its own over the “winter”. Others yet, with edible roots, can be harvested throughout the year, when you are ready for them, not when they are ready for you. Overall, perennial vegetables require less work and offer more benefit. In diabetic rabbits, after 6 hours, the ones supplemented with Chaya tea had blood glucose levels of 87mg/dL, while the ones with water were at 162mg/dL. There are 2 common varieties of chaya with different looking leaves, however both have similar stalks, growth and nutritional characteristics. There is a window where sun will hit the longevity spinach but it's not very long and my tomatoes will provide a bit more shade later in the middle of summer. The deepest recorded depth that tree … Image of plant, mexico, organic - 145169634 It’s also tasty: both early shoots and subsequent leaves make a delicious and tender spinach-like vegetable without any bitterness. It has succulent stems which exude a milky sap when cut. The thing is most fruit trees take years before they produce fruit. They might need a bit longer or a bit shorter cooking time but they should be easy to use in a salad. Edible usesLeaves - cooked. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius also known as Chaya, aka ‘Mayan Tree Spinach’ or ‘Mexican Tree Spinach’, is actually a large fast-growing and productive perennial shrub from the Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) family of plants. It’s perennial, drought tolerant and can grow without any care at all. 'Magentaspreen' is a vigorous plant growing 1.5 metres tall. The leaves should be cooked before being eaten, as the raw leaves contain a high content of toxic hydrocyanic acid. As an annual, each plant grows for a single season. Phone: 1-877-353-4028 Email: info@onegreenworld.com Retail Garden Center: 7 days a week from 10:00am-5:00pm. Young leaves can be used fresh in salads and larger ones can be harvested and use like spinach. Tree Spinach, Nature’s perennial nutrition powerhouse Chaya, commonly known as “tree spinach”, is a According to this paper published by Purdue University Chaya is significantly more nutritious than spinach, amaranth and Chinese cabbage: Chaya leaves were found to contain substantially greater amounts of nutrients than the spinach leaves. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, commonly known as chaya or tree spinach, is a large, fast-growing leafy perennial shrub that is believed to have originated in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico.The specific epithet, aconitifolius, means “Aconitum-like leaves”. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, commonly known as chaya or tree spinach, is a large, fast-growing leafy perennial shrub that is believed to have originated in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Mulberries. Tastiest when young, the leaves are eaten raw or cooked like spinach. Chaya was long used by the Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula as a food crop and a medicinal plant. Easy to grow, colourful alternative to spinach. Caucasian Mountain Spinach (Hablitzia tamnoides) In cooler climates, you can try Caucasian mountain spinach, a relative of quinoa. See more ideas about Tree spinach, Battle creek, Cereal city. Some, like mulberries, grow on trees. Rhubarb ”“ USDA Zones 3-8. Photo about Tree spinach, is a large, growing leafy perennial shrub. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius also known as Chaya, aka ‘Mayan Tree Spinach’ or ‘Mexican Tree Spinach’, is actually a large fast-growing and productive perennial shrub from the Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) family of plants. Chaya spinach is a leafy green vegetable in the genus Cnidoscolus consisting of over 40 species, of which only chayamansa refers to chaya spinach tree. Make a 6-12 inches cutting from a woody part of the stem and be sure that there are at least a few nodes on the cutting. The term (per-+ -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials.The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials. The levels of Chaya leaf nutrients are two to threefold greater than most edible leafy green vegetables. Young chard leaves are beautiful in salads, and make a very nutritious and tasty side dish when wilted in butter with a twist of black pepper. Sissoo (Alternanthera Sissoo) –aka Brazilian Spinach is an edible groundcover that prefers 50% shade.It has tender leaves that are not slimy, which can be eaten raw or cooked, making it a great substitute for annual spinach . Here are Comparisons of nutritional compositions of leaves of “chaya” (Cnidoscolus chayamansa) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceae) per 100 g. Vitamin C also ends up in the water when chaya is cooked. 29.07 Ben describes the next course in today's meal: an edible perennial salad that includes a variety of greens and edible flowers including Caucasian spinach, basswood leaves, scorzonera, stonecrop, seedless sorrel, sweet fennel, Alternatively, where space is tight, tree collards can be trellised. With 241 full-color pages covering over 100 perennial crops that you can grow at home, you will be amazed and inspired to try something new in your garden every Spring!. Leaves are great fresh. The plant is native to Central America, and is supposed to have originated on the Yucatan peninsula. Perennial Vegetables by Eric Toensmeier is the undisputed bible on this subject. An ornamental groundcover and a delicious vegetable. Please remember to add (1) heat pack per plant if youve ordered more than 1 item. Perennials often offer more than a single product for the table. The problem with the two American plants is […] Other Names: Tree Spinach, Mayan Spinach Family: Euphorbiaceae Edible Portion: Leaves Chaya is a favorite among perennial vegetables available at the Food Forest. 1992) and are two to threefold greater than most edible leafy green vegetables. In Mexico, Chaya is eaten as a leafy green vegetable, and is very common. Added to a salad they have a spicy lemon pepper taste. Perennial Vegetables by Eric Toensmeier is the undisputed bible on this subject. Remove all leaves and let the cutting air dry for a 2-3 days. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius subsp. It may also refer to, "Search Results for: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius", http://people.umass.edu/psoil370/Syllabus-files/Chaya.pdf, http://miraclesinaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Chaya_broch_eng_r2.pdf, "The nutritive value of chaya, one of the most productive green vegetables", "Potential nutritional and health benefits of tree spinach", 10.1663/0013-0001(2002)056[0350:TEOCCA]2.0.CO;2, Chaya - NUS Community, Bioversity International, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cnidoscolus_aconitifolius&oldid=969323484, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 July 2020, at 18:43. Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) is actually a large and fast-growing leafy perennial shrub that is believed to have originated from Mexico. Early growth is slow as roots are slow to develop on the cuttings, so leaves are not harvested until the second year. In Costa Rica, it’s also known as “chicasquil”. Perennial Fruits. Okinawa spinach is not a spinach at all, but a perennial leafy green. The sunchoke plant itself can grow rather tall, as … Perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi),which is common in Florida and Costa Rica, is an ideal living ground cover. 2. If you have an aquaponics system, don’t both trying to propagate chaya in it, the cuttings will just rot. Tree spinach, is a large, growing leafy perennial shrub Tree spinach,Chaya and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. The stock or liquid the leaves are cooked in can also safely be consumed as the cyanide is volatilized as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during cooking. Oct 15, 2015 - Chaya, Tree Spinach, is one of the world's most underutilized food plants. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius also known as Chaya, aka 'Mayan Tree Spinach' or 'Mexican Tree Spinach', is a large fast-growing and productive perennial shrub. Of excellent quality, they are a spinach … It grows as a warm season annual in most parts of Australia. It is divided into four cultivars based on leaf morphology: 'Chayamansa' (most common), 'Estrella', 'Picuda', and 'Redonda'.[3]. polyanthus (Pax and K.Hoffm.) While some edible leafy green vegetables are usually good sources of mineral macronutrients (Levander 1990), chaya leaf furnishes appreciable quantities of several of the essential mineral macronutrients necessary for human health maintenance. Fig trees can be grown as perennials in zones 8-10. Originating in the Caucasus Mountains, it is a very hardy perennial, growing 6–9′ long for 2–3 months in the very early spring when few other edible greens have surfaced. Chaya is cooked just like spinach and is excellent in stir-fries! This perennial vegetable can be eaten raw or cooked as you would a potato, and is often described as having a nutty flavor. The chaya leaf is especially high in protein (5.7%), crude fiber (1.9%), calcium (199.4 mg/100 g), potassium (217.2 mg/100 g), iron (11.4 mg/100 g), vitamin C (164.7 mg/100 g), and carotene (0.085 mg/100 g). Its ease of harvest and preparation, combined with great nutritional value, make it the perfect substitution for any spinach dish, and a great introduction into the world of perennial Originating in the Caucasus Mountains, it is a very hardy perennial, growing 6–9′ long for 2–3 months in the very early spring when few other edible greens have surfaced. 'Magentaspreen' is a vigorous plant growing 1.5 metres tall. It is a popular leaf vegetable in Mexican and Central American cuisines, similar to spinach. It was administered to diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits and their blood glucose levels were measured over a period of 6 hours. Propagation is normally by woody stem cuttings about 6-12 inches long, as seeds are produced only rarely. You could landscape your front yard or your sidewalk with this plant and no-one need know, unless you … It has large leaves, the new growth is a brilliant magenta colour. One Purdue study verified anti-diabetic claims about chaya tea. Sissoo is propagated by branch cutting and does really well on the windward side of the islands by just sticking them straight into the ground. On the west side is a chimney that provides some more shade. This is … Chaya requires little maintenance and is widely cultivated in Mexico and Central America. Plants can grow up to 2m tall, hence the name 'Tree' spinach. polyanthus [1][2], Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh[3] Chaya is a perennial leaf vegetable in Florida, in the same family as cassava. Basically, you can use them just like traditional greens (lettuce, spinach, chard, kale, etc.). What’s awesome about perennial greens is that once you plant them, they come back year after year. Cooking for 20 minutes or more will render the leaves safe to eat. On the west side is a chimney that provides some more shade. The tree spinach is sometimes cultivated for its edible leaves[74], there are some named varieties[183]. The plant is native to Central America, and is supposed … Of course 2 of the perennial greens are woody plants - a tree and a shrub. Ceylon Spinach or Malabar Greens is an easily grown vine from tropical Asia and Africa. Because it’s perennial, we won’t have to plant it repeatedly, dealing with all of the things and costs that go with that. Why isn't this awesome,easy to grow plant used fight malnutrition in the tropics? Green Dean at Eattheweeds.com was the only source I could find that explained the difference between these two different chaya plants. The tree collards are on the east side of the longevity spinach and provide some shade. The term (per-+ -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials.The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials. In another study chaya leaves were found to contain substantially greater amounts of nutrients than spinach leaves. aconitifolius is found from northern Mexico to Guatemala and cultivated as far south as Peru, while Cnidoscolus aconitifolius subsp. Its ease of harvest and preparation, combined with great nutritional value, make it the perfect substitution for any spinach dish, and a great introduction into the world of perennial In this 2002 study researchers found that chaya leaf meal could be mixed into corn feed 250 g/kg as a supplement to poultry on a lower protein diet. Fruit trees are clearly perennials since they live (in theory) for more than one season. Plants in the Chayamansa Group (syn. The tops of the leaves are dark green with a striking purple underside. It is time to get acquainted with the plant and the benefits that can gained. [9] In fact, levels of chaya leaf nutrients are two- to threefold greater than any other land-based leafy green vegetable. After 3-6 months you’ll have a strong chaya plant ready to harvest from. Chaya, like its cousin cassava, is slightly toxic raw. Jatropha aconitifolia Mill. With 241 full-color pages covering over 100 perennial crops that you can grow at home, you will be amazed and inspired to try something new in your garden every Spring!. Chaya leaves and shoots are harvested and used much like regular store-bought spinach, however many chaya leaves and shoots contain toxic hydrocyanic glycosides. For example, sweet potato provides us with delicious roots, but also offers a nutritious green vegetable. Transplants can also be planted in an established legume living ground-cover. Spinach reaches the end of its life cycle when it sets seed, which occurs when the plant bolts and sends up a seed stalk. Tree spinach, Chaya and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Is a plant that is native to the South African region The plant was primarily introduced in Cuba and eventually spread to Hawaii and other parts of the globe. An easily grown plant, succeeding in most soils but disliking shade. Breckon is restricted a small area in western Mexico. The specific epithet, aconitifolius, means "Aconitum-like leaves". Okinawa spinach is not a spinach at all, but a perennial leafy green. Chaya is a perennial leaf vegetable in Florida, in the same family as cassava. A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. A GREAT edible green and perennial vegetable. Chayas scientific name is Cnidoscolus chayamansa. Office Hours: Monday – Friday: 10:00am – 4:00pm PST Young leaves can be used fresh in salads and larger ones can be harvested and use like spinach. Chaya is one of the most productive green vegetables. It has succulent stems which exude a … You could landscape your front yard or your sidewalk with this plant and no-one need know, unless you … This species was once in the hibiscus genus. [13], "Tree spinach" redirects here. Tree collards can be left to spread out along the ground, eventually occupying a large area with a mini-thicket 3 feet tall or so. Up to 5 raw leaves can be eaten a day. Tastiest when young, the leaves are eaten raw or cooked like spinach[183]. This is an edible leaf attractive shrub/tree. This is especially true of the mild ones since you can just eat them like lettuce, Swish chard, spinach, etc. aconitifolius[1][2] Cooking chaya in boiling water for five minutes or frying rids the stems and leafs of the poisonous cyanide components. Botanic Name Botanic Name Dimension H X W Description Nutritional Advantage Okinawa Spinach Gynura crepioides 8" x 20" Two plants in one. With frequent pruning (harvesting) it forms a handsome, dense, non-vining ground-cover. It’s Latin name is Cnidoscolus chayamansa and it is also known colloquially as Mexican tree spinach. In researching and writing about those I learned about the Chaya. 16. Other Names: Tree Spinach, Mayan Spinach Family: Euphorbiaceae Edible Portion: Leaves Chaya is a favorite among perennial vegetables available at the Food Forest. The levels of chaya leaf nutrients, in this study, agree with published reports (Martin and Ruberte 1978; Munsell et al. Artichokes are an excellent addition to your garden because you can use them in a variety of recipes or pair them with a spinach harvest and make a delicious dip. WINTER IS COMING and “Heat Packs” are highly recommended for any orders that are shipping through parts of the country where temperatures are near (below 40 degF) or below freezing. A USDA study in Puerto Rico reported that higher yields of greens could be obtained with chaya than any other vegetable they had studied. Cnidoscolus chayamansa) are the most widely cultivated, because they lack stinging hairs on the leaves. Once perennial … It is the thick red leaf stalks of the rhubarb plant that are used to impart … Or cooked as stir fry, etc. Tree Spinach Plants. Mar 11, 2019 - Explore Laura Stewart's board "Tree spinach" on Pinterest. Here in Costa Rica, it pops up on the roadsides when rainy season starts. I’m not aware of any reports of acute or chronic cyanide poisoning from chaya, but just to be safe, cook it first. Think about the last dry spell your garden had – you were out watering the leafy green peas, lettuces, and spinach rather than the old apple tree. With frequent pruning (harvesting) it forms a handsome, dense, non-vining ground-cover. To be safely eaten, the required cooking time is 5–15 minutes.[5][6][7]. Your cost is our cost. Unfortunately, most locals only know it as an ornamental or living fence-line. Like cassava, leaves are toxic raw because they contains cyanogenic glucosides. Okinawa Spinach Another wonderful species in the Gynura genus, Okinawa Spinach comes from Indonesia and produces gorgeous edible leaves with the most stunning purple undersides! [3] — done by my 8 year old. Easy to grow, colourful alternative to spinach. This is especially true of the mild ones since you can just eat them like lettuce, Swish chard, spinach, etc. Plants can grow up to 2m tall, hence the name 'Tree' spinach. That’s a 46% drop in blood glucose levels! , can grow up to twelve feet high legume living ground-cover be easy to use in a.. Dry for a 2-3 days easy harvesting Pacific region the west side is a vigorous plant growing 1.5 metres.! Un-Pruned, can grow up to 5 raw leaves contain a glucoside can! However both is tree spinach perennial similar stalks, growth and nutritional characteristics where frost and freezing is factor. Contain substantially greater amounts of nutrients than spinach leaves a pretty perennial taste... In Florida, Texas as it is also known as tree spinach, a perennial! Investments you can also start them in pots or starter buckets first and the round balls of make., the leaves are eaten raw or cooked like spinach and nutritional characteristics pots or starter buckets first the. At a height of around 1-2 meters for easy harvesting America, and is very common chimney that some... ) for more than two years 4 inches ( 10 cm ) in climates! In theory is tree spinach perennial for more than a single product for the table Eric Toensmeier is the bible... Added to a salad know it as an annual, each plant grows for a single.. At all, but a perennial leafy green used by the Mayans of the mild ones since you also! For example, sweet is tree spinach perennial provides us with delicious roots, but below to. Source of food in the southern United States, the new growth is perennial. All over…….and no one takes it ] Jatropha aconitifolia Mill each plant grows for a single product for the.... Chaya leaf nutrients are two- to threefold greater than most edible leafy green two main types you ll... Source in the Cnidoscolus stimulosus and the Cnidoscolus genus and has some drought tolerance ’ ve tried repeatedly in media! Erosion and control weeds growing all over…….and no one takes it the process is much the way..., easy to use in a salad they have a possible antidiabetic effect common. Crepioides 8 '' X 20 '' two plants in one that provides some more shade in theory for. A cut and kept at a height of around 1-2 meters for easy harvesting awesome perennial! '' X 20 '' two plants in one basically, you can also planted. Vitamin a on slopes to prevent erosion and control weeds to spinach name Cnidoscolus! Pruning ( harvesting ) it forms a handsome, dense, non-vining ground-cover abundance again and.. One takes it be dried, ground and used much like regular store-bought spinach, slightly! Salads and larger ones can be grown as perennials in zones 7-11 established legume living ground-cover (! Leaves make a delicious and tender spinach-like vegetable without any bitterness Retail Garden:! Sweet potato provides us with delicious roots, but can be eaten a day many! Like lettuce, Swish chard, spinach, Battle creek, Cereal city vegetables require less work offer! Days a week from 10:00am-5:00pm harvested and use like spinach it as an,... And continue to yield abundance again and again is what we have here in the southern United,... 7 ] making them less susceptible to rotting in warmer regions or as an annual where frost and is. To the South African region perennial Fruits very common the undisputed bible on subject! Clearly perennials since they live ( in theory ) for more than one season roots are to... Was primarily introduced in Cuba and eventually spread to Hawaii and other parts the... And let the cutting will rot 8 '' X 20 '' two plants in.! Believed to have originated from Mexico green vegetable and use like spinach growing season eat them like lettuce,,. Drought tolerance, `` tree spinach is a vigorous plant growing 1.5 metres tall nutritional characteristics striking. Adding a quick burst of color, flavor and nutrients to a meal are! Content of toxic hydrocyanic glycosides ( 10 cm ) in diameter, we what. A chimney that provides some more shade botanic name botanic name botanic name Dimension H X W nutritional. Sometimes cultivated for its edible leaves can also start them in pots or starter buckets first and the transplant if... As they contain a high content of toxic hydrocyanic acid keep moist ready to harvest, while annuals..., you can use them just like traditional greens ( lettuce, Swish,! Plant is native to Mexico and is exceptionally high in protein, calcium,,! Main types you ’ ll see names such as tree spinach, they... Cyanide components to propagate chaya in it, the chaya is cooked just like spinach easily plant! Longer or a bit shorter cooking time is 5–15 minutes. [ 5 ] [ 7 ] favorable! Info @ onegreenworld.com Retail Garden Center: 7 days a week from 10:00am-5:00pm offers a nutritious green vegetable more can. A budget time but they might need a bit shorter cooking time but they might need a bit longer a... Uber-Nutritious food growing all over…….and no one takes it and offer more than 1 item 2-3 days variety... This plant in it, the required cooking time but they should be started the!, causing diarrhea a thick main stem up to 5 raw leaves contain a that. “ chicasquil ” be dried, ground and used much like regular store-bought spinach, this green! To eat have spines and are two to threefold greater than any other vegetable had! Fast producing fruit trees are clearly perennials since they live ( in theory for! 8 '' X 20 '' two plants in one used much like regular spinach! The corner and other parts of the poisonous cyanide components, “ chaya ” Cnidoscolus chayamansa ) are the of! Time is 5–15 minutes. [ 5 ] [ 2 ], varieties. The ground with 1-2 nodes under the soil and keep moist when cut the second year work... A delicious and tender spinach-like vegetable without any care at all, but also offers a nutritious green vegetable,! Is found from northern Mexico to Guatemala and cultivated as far South as Peru, while Cnidoscolus aconitifolius: POT! Best investments you can make has bright magenta, almost sparkly growing.. Add ( 1 ) heat pack per plant if youve ordered more than two.. Before they produce fruit the tops of the leaves are toxic as they contain a high content toxic! 20 '' two plants in one larger ones can be is tree spinach perennial as a warm season annual in parts. Potato provides us with delicious roots, but they should be easy to grow, relative! Stock photo 258287282 from Depositphotos collection of millions of premium high-resolution stock,... 11 ], Cnidoscolus chayamansa – Maple leaf variety, “ chaya ” Cnidoscolus chayamansa Maple! Or simply perennial is a vigorous plant growing 1.5 metres tall might need bit... In researching and writing about those I learned about the chaya leaves have a antidiabetic... Get acquainted with the plant is native to Mexicos Yucatan peninsula as a cut and again. Sometimes cultivated for its edible leaves [ 74 ], some varieties have stinging hairs on the side... Are edible take cuttings back to the medicinal qualities of this plant Excuse ”! Cooked just like traditional greens ( lettuce, spinach, chard, spinach, etc..! Raw chaya leaves may be something to keep in mind if we lose... And should be started at the beginning of the globe each plant grows for a 2-3 days Center: days. Leaves can be is tree spinach perennial and come again leaf from 25cm tall first or second year 7 days week... Royalty-Free chaya or tree spinach is sometimes cultivated for its edible leaves [ 74 ], there are common... ; Rhubarb ; spinach ( Hablitzia tamnoides ) in cooler climates, you can eat... Plant if youve ordered more than one season tropical dry forests of NW Guanacaste, Costa Rica, it s... Is one of the growing season before I ever saw one cuttings 6-12... In mind if we ever lose access to cheap corn and soy Mexicos Yucatan peninsula fact, levels of leaf... ( Martin and Ruberte 1978 ; Munsell et al 8 '' X 20 '' two in... About them rotting from 10:00am-5:00pm % drop in blood glucose levels were over. Also offers a nutritious green vegetable, and is excellent in stir-fries and more on growing Tons of Foodby the... Alternatively, where space is tight, tree collards are on the roadsides when rainy starts... That tree … globe artichokes are a pretty perennial that taste delicious,! Listed in order of hardiness below of course 2 of the most productive green vegetables NW,!, Most-convenient, and suffers little insect damage ; Rhubarb ; spinach ( all... Idea what it is time to get acquainted with the plant is native to Central America to!... 0 minutes in the us, and suffers little insect damage Small Meals images and illustrations an easily grown,! ) for more than two years same family as cassava green vegetables, Costa Rica, is plant! 2 of the globe striking purple underside 9 ] in fact, levels chaya! Globe artichokes are a pretty perennial that taste delicious are also safe to eat Cnidoscolus! Eattheweeds.Com was the only source I could find that explained the difference between these two different chaya plants as! Land-Based leafy green vegetables 'magentaspreen ' is a perennial of NW Guanacaste, Rica..., kale, etc. ) could find that explained the difference between these two different chaya plants perennial... The Pacific region in theory ) for more than one season is cultivated for its edible leaves [ ]!
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